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Tuesday, March 13, 2012

NATURE OF X-RAYS


NATURE OF X-RAYS: we regard x-rays as waves similar to light waves, but of much shorter wavelength about 10^(-10)m or 0.1nm. However, the wavelength of visible light is nearly 10^3 times more than the wavelength of x-rays. While the wavelength of visible light ranges from 4000 Ᾰ to 8000 Ᾰ, the wavelength of x-rays generally lies between 1 to 3 Ᾰ. Since wavelength is proportional to frequency, therefore the frequency of x-rays is nearly 10^3 times more than the frequency of visible light. Again, since the energy of a photon is proportional to frequency therefore x-ray photons are much stronger than the photons of visible light.
Some properties of x-ray:
·         X-rays are electromagnetic waves having wavelength in range from 1 to 100 Ᾰ.
·         X-rays can affect photographics plates.
·         X-ray can ionize a gas through which they pass.
·         They travel with a velocity of light  i.e. 3*10^8 m/s in vaccum or air.
·         They shows particle like properties in interacting with matter as in photoelectric effect and comption effect.
·         They are highly penetrating and can pass through many solids which are opaque to visible light e.g. wood, flesh, paper, thin sheets of metal etc.
·         When x-rays fall on certain metals, secondary x-rays are produced.
There are various uses of x-rays:
Medicine: x-rays are used both for diagnosis and cure.
1.       In surgery: x-rays are used in surgery to detect the fracture of bones, diseased organic and foreign bodies and growth in the human body. A person is allowed to stand between a fluorescent screen and the fracture of the bones can be detected.
2.       Radio therapy: x- rays are used to destroy malignant tumours  and to cure interactable skin diseases etc. soft x-rays are used, if the affected part are superficial, while hard x-ray are  used to destroyed tumours very deep inside the body.
Industry: In industries, x-rays are used to detect any defect in radio values, tennis balls, and the presence of pearls in oysters. They are also used to test the uniformity of the insulating materials and quality of oil painters.
Engineering: here, we make the use of the penetrating power of x-rays. These rays are used in detecting flaws in the heavy girders, flaws, cracks, and air bubbles in certain finish goods. They are used to test the quality of welding, moulds and metal castings.
Detective departments: here also the property of penetration of x-ray is utilized in making the detection of the presence of smuggled gold, at airports, seaports etc. they are used in detective departments for detection of explosive, opium and other contraband goods.
In research: x-rays are widely used for research and to investigate the structure of crystals, arrangement of atoms and molecules in matter and their behavior on different materials. By knowing the x-rays scattered by elements, we know their inner structure and chemical composition etc.

1 Responses to “NATURE OF X-RAYS”

Jitendra said...
March 13, 2012 at 12:58 PM

Wow, Good post. It is awesome.!!!


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